The years between the first and second world wars were a time of instability. The Great Depression that began on Black Tuesday, 1929 plunged the worldwide recession. Coming to power in 1933, Hitler capitalized on this economic decline and the deep German resentment due to the emasculating Treaty of Versailles, signed following the armistice of 1918. Declaring that Germany needed Lebensraum or “living space,” Hitler began to test the Western powers and their willingness to monitor the treaty’s provision. By 1935 Hitler had established the Luftwaffe, a direct violation of the 1919 treaty. Remilitarizing the Rhineland in 1936 violated Versailles and the Locarno Treaties (which defined the borders of Europe) once again. The Anschluss of Austria and the annexation of the rump of Czechoslovakia was a further extension of Hitler’s desire for Lebensraum. Italy’s desire to create the Third Rome pushed the nation to closer ties with Nazi Germany. Likewise, Japan, angered by their exclusion in Paris in 1919, sought to create a Pan-Asian sphere with Japan in order to create a self-sufficient state.
A vortex can be composed of smoke, steam, or just air. Because smoke and steam are lighter than air, they allow for a more stable vortex. But an efficient vortex can be made using just air. Normally, a burst of air passing through the atmosphere is impeded by friction and quickly loses its momentum. But because the outer edges of the vortex are circulating very fast, an almost frictionless environment is created around it, which allows it to freely glide along great distances. It strikes with the force of a solid object and can even bounce off structures and continue in a different vector.