After 1907 relations with the feminist bourgeois organisations became particularly tense. However, when these decided to call a Congress of all Russian women in 1908, Social Democratic women activists, with the important support of Alexandra Kollontai, took advantage of this in order to carry out socialist propaganda among wider layers of society. They organized meetings and individual discussions in semi-underground conditions to elect delegates from trade union and party branches. In spite of their efforts, the working class women delegates actually participating in the conference were only 45, against the 700 bourgeois feminists present. The Social Democratic participants did not lose heart and used every opportunity to make their own separate political identity clear to everyone. They formed a separate group within the conference and presented revolutionary resolutions on every issue on the agenda, ranging from safety at work, to what relations women should have with political parties, to women's right to vote. The majority of delegates rejected all the resolutions presented by the revolutionary wing. The bourgeois feminists rejected completely the need to struggle against the private ownership of the means of production. Any attempt to unite workingwomen in a single "inter-class" organisation with bourgeois feminists was shown to be impossible. The intervention of the socialist women at this conference served to draw a clear line of demarcation between the bourgeois feminists and the socialist revolutionary movement, which served to raise higher the class-consciousness of women workers.
What Abraham Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation did—and did not—do has been the subject of heated debate ever since. Did it free all the slaves? None? Or some? Was it a thunderbolt aimed at correcting generations of inhumanity? Was it rather a stroke of political expediency directed solely at foreign powers otherwise poised to intervene in America’s war on the side of the slaveholding South? Or was it merely an acknowledgment that slavery was already dying, thanks to forces beyond the president’s control?
The voices of African women activists and intellectuals are particularly necessary as the interconnections between militarism, masculinity and violence become clearer. Patricia McFadden writes, ‘By imbuing the notion of rampancy with political weight in terms of its use as a gendered and supremacist practice within militarism…[it"> facilitates both class consolidation and accumulation, as well as gendered exclusion of women and working communities in Africa’. Women have been combating their exclusion through both organized and non-organized action.