24. Louise Erdrich’s The Plague of Doves centers around a horrific crime, the bloody murder of an entire family and its equally horrific after-effects. Generally speaking, the text presents history as a series of violent crimes, of traumatic injuries. But what drives this history? What is the source of all this violence and cruelty? Does Erdrich offer a clear answer, a straightforward culprit? Does her text offer any explanation, any way of making sense of the terrible acts that it depicts? Does it offer any kind of moral judgment? If not, why not? Why might Erdrich be reluctant to assign blame or responsibility for the traumatic history that she depicts?