Oil pipeline tariff research papers

Electricity supply in the United Kingdom is deregulated and the several providers offer different tariffs, much as telephone or internet service providers do. Economy 7 can offer some consumers savings, but a careful analysis should be done. For example, if the price is double the normal tariff during the 'day' period, and half the normal during the 'night' period, then to break even the consumer would need to use over 2/3 of their energy during the 'night' period. Typically this holds true when heating/water is electric rather than gas, or if the supply is used to charge an electric vehicle overnight. An Economy 7 tariff can end up costing significantly more than a standard tariff without restructuring current energy usage. [11]

In February 1998, the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission ruled the arrangement as being uncompetitive as Alinta would thereby discourage the building of a second (and competing) gas line. The West Australian Government withdrew the arrangement. In 1999, a second line is under consideration 1000 km from Onslow to Geraldton to bring gas from the Onslow Basin (primarily Gorgon field). It would require 500 tj per day to justify (300tj for the pipeline without Gorgon that would cost US$1 billion to develop). It would be reliant on Kingstream Steel, Mid West Iron and Steel, Dow/Shell's PPP and Mt Gibson Iron.  A smaller gas line (East Spar, operated by Apache) provides gas to the Goldfields region east of Perth (to 100 terajoules per day). Apache Energy also provides gas from Wonnich to Varanus Island that also gathers gas from Harriet field and by 12 and 16 inch pipelines to the mainland providing 22 PJ or 22 per cent of domestic market. A 530 km lateral from the Dampier-to-Bunbury line, beginning at Geraldton is under consideration for the Windimurra vanadium project and possibly to Murrin Murrin nickel east of Leonora (and east of the Goldfields gas line!). The high cost of the Goldfields line is promoting the use of a lateral from the larger domestic line. Epic Energy has purchased (December 1997) for A$129m two gas lines: a 24 km Burrup to the Dampier-to-Bunbury gas line (to Mainline Valve 7 (MLV7)) with a capacity of 500 terajoules per day (clearly strategically important with expansion in domestic gas consumption including An Feng Kingstream in which Epic has a contract to supply its gas). The line has a 600 mm pipeline providing an independent line to the Port Hedland line. a 219 km line (455mm) from MLV7 on the Dampier-to-Perth Line (24 km from the head of the Burrup Pensinsula) to Port Hedland's with a capacity of 178 Terajoules per day (165 to be used) for BHP's power station and HBI iron plant. See also DRI and iron.   LPG Plant Wesfarmers LPG Ltd (a local company) established in 1988 extracts LPG (C3 and C4). It has a production capacity of 300 000 tonnes of LPG and 25 000 tonnes of condensate. It has been producing 255 000 tonnes of LPG and 5 000 tonnes of condensate, exporting 150 000 tonnes of LPG (to Japan).

Oil pipeline tariff research papers

oil pipeline tariff research papers


oil pipeline tariff research papersoil pipeline tariff research papersoil pipeline tariff research papersoil pipeline tariff research papers