An article found in the November 1998 issue of * Social Problems* details the conflict involving racial domination by identifying the complexity African-Americans face. In many cases, sociologists and laypersons alike are often limited in their approach to the problem. Michelle Byng, in "Mediating Discrimination: Oppression among African-American Muslim Women"—the 1998 article—brings to focus new approaches to understanding discrimination, but also, she writes to illustrate the many overlooked opportunities in which the discriminated are able to empower themselves in certain situations. sfsdfsdfsdfsfddsf

Then based on the formula for the covariance , if we denote z ′ = X {\displaystyle \mathbf {z} '=\mathbf {X} } and z ′ A ′ = Y {\displaystyle \mathbf {z} 'A'=\mathbf {Y} } (where henceforth a prime sign ′ {\displaystyle '} denotes a transpose), we see that: