Earning opportunities for refugees are predominantly informal, principally due to governments issuing few working permits. Barriers include quotas, fees, long and cumbersome paperwork, and discrimination by employers. In Turkey, even after reforms opening the labor market in January 2016, the number of refugees in a single workplace cannot exceed 10%; employers pay work permit fees of 600 TL ($180) every year; while there is an exemption for seasonal work, it requires a separate application and still requires being registered for at least 6 months.  By late 2015 at most several thousand permits have been issued, refugees are thus overwhelmingly employed informally.  Jobs are often seasonal and employment rates differ widely between winter and summer.  In May 2016 in Lebanon 36% working-age individuals (70% men, 7% women) reported working (for at least one day in the 30 days prior to a survey). Among them underemployment was widespread (working 14 days a month on average) and wages were low (on average $215 for working men and $115 for working women). The structure of employment was 33% construction, 22% agriculture, 26% services, 6% retail/shops, 6% cleaning.