The same generally positive trend was detectable across Western Europe. Vitally, for the subsequent long-term history of Europe, the sheer scale of the trauma of 1816-18 initiated the re-education of political elites in the post-Napoleonic period as to their humanitarian responsibilities to their citizens. In the process, it weakened the grip of the extreme laissez-faire ideology that had characterized the first phase of European industrial modernization. Out of the global tragedy of Tambora, it might be argued, emerged the rudiments of the modern liberal state. At the same time, however, it would be wrong to overestimate the pace of progress. In many cases, progressive laws and statutes that emerged from the 1816-18 crisis were not enforced, and the evolving humanitarian rhetoric of the early nineteenth century remained just that.